scope of research dissertation

“Critical thinkers” have the dispositions and abilities that lead them to think .. well as beliefs as the end point of a process of critical thinking (Ennis ; Bailin et al. .. tests of critical reading and evaluation and of critiquing an argument. Observational abilities require an understanding of the difference.

A categorically planned assortment of stores in a mall would provide diversity and arousal, and would encourage a propensity to shop around the mall. Accordingly, mall managers may develop appropriate tenancy policies for retailing firms with regard to the socio-demographic factors of customers in order to satisfy different segments. An appropriate mix of anchor tenants and new age tenants who have different target groups would better attract customers to shopping malls, and such an assortment of stores could coexist in a shopping mall successfully without any conflict of interest.

Prospective shopping malls should be able to nurture an environment conducive to the development of all components in the system for successful positioning of malls.

Market Research Solutions

In view of growing competition among retailers and increasing market congestion in urban areas, retailing firms need to adapt to a dynamic strategy to achieve success in the business. Retailers located in LS and XLS malls where intensity of competition is higher should lure customers into non-price promotions and develop a niche of customers to build brand loyalty.

If a retailing firm chooses to compete on price, complex pricing actions, cutting of prices in certain channels, or introduction of new products or flanking brands strategies may be used, which allows the firm to selectively target only those segments of customers who are on the verge of switching brands or retail outlets. Such strategies may be implemented in specific malls. The promotional effects generated from various promotional tools may be monitored for longer periods of time and measured with regard to achieving the long-term goals of retail firms. In addition, variability of promotional response in different retail markets, channels and outlets should be analysed to make required modifications in the process of delivery of promotional programmes to customers.

However, social and recreational appeals for attracting consumers to malls also act as driving factors in augmenting customer traffic to shopping malls. Managers of retail firms must understand that shopping behaviour among customers is governed by various factors such as credit availability and customer services offered in the shopping mall.

Factors that successfully connect various customer groups with shopping interests continue to build strength in retail brands, stores and malls. At the retail point-of-purchase convergence of customer loyalty, value for money and competitive product advantages drive loyalty to retail stores. Most successful retail brand stores pass through certain recognisable stages that affect customer decisions on marketing factors such as pricing, product identity, and sales and distribution networks. The perspectives of shopping mall ambience and shopping satisfaction effectively become a measure of retail performance, customer attraction and propensity to shop for urban shoppers.

This tendency of shoppers demands change in the strategy of mall management and retailing by offering more recreational infrastructure, extended working hours, place for demonstrations and consumer education on the innovative and high-technology products and services. This study discusses the impact of growing congestion of shopping malls in urban areas of Mexico on shopping convenience and shopping behaviour with regard to personality traits of shoppers affecting the preferences for shopping malls concerning store assortment, convenience, distance to malls, economic advantage and leisure facilities.

The results of the study reveal that the ambience of shopping malls and assortment of stores attracts higher customer traffic to the malls. It was found during this study that urban shoppers visit shopping malls as leisure centres to relax, spending long hours and tending to shop in response to various sales promotions used by different stores. The discussions in the study divulge that shopping arousal is largely driven by mall attractions, inter-personal influences, sales promotions and comparative gains among urban shoppers.

The major factors that affect shopping arousal among urban shoppers concern recreational facilities, location of the mall, ambience and store attractiveness with regard to products and services, brand value and price.


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Similar to many other empirical studies, this research might also have some limitations with regard to sampling, data collection and generalisation of the findings. The samples drawn for this study may not be enough to generalise the study results. However, the results of this study may indicate a similar pattern of shopping behaviour of urban consumers in shopping malls with regard to other Latin American markets. Historically, this market was started as a casual market, but is now a shopping mall and major entertainment complex.

However, stores in this market are somewhat informal, and deal in a variety of consumer and electronic merchandise. Campus Santa Fe, Mexico during — Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Growing shopping malls and behaviour of urban shoppers.

consumer perception towards shopping mall | Consumer Behaviour | Retail

Authors Authors and affiliations Rajagopal. Original Article First Online: 12 May Location and shopping behaviour The development of shopping malls and leisure facility centres in Mexico needs to be evaluated from the perspectives of economic, operational and managerial efficiency. Thus, Hypothesis 1a is framed as follows: Hypothesis 1a: Congestion of shopping malls with the same store brands reduces attraction towards shopping and visits of shoppers to malls. Hypothesis 1b: Agglomeration of small retail stores around large shopping malls deviates consumer shopping focus from stores inside the mall, as customers experience ethnic ambience and economic gain in buying from small retailers.

Hypothesis 1c: Urban shoppers visit shopping malls as leisure centres to relax, and tend to shop in response to sales promotions employed by different stores. Hypothesis 2a: Consumers are influenced in making buying decisions by the product attractiveness and arousal generated while shopping in malls. Hypothesis 2b: Shopping malls with better leisure facilities and ambience attract a large number of visitors, who stay longer in the malls and indulge in compulsive buying. Hypothesis 3: Competitive sales promotions of retail stores in shopping malls induce variety-seeking behaviour and build store loyalty among shoppers.

A Study of Attitude of Customer towards Shopping Malls (In Reference to Delhi and NCR)

Sampling This study has been conducted in 14 shopping malls comprising assorted stores located on the street Canal de Miramontes in the south of Mexico City. This street has been purposively selected because it branches out into various residential settlements. The locations of the malls covered under the study are shown in Figure 1. Open image in new window.

Figure 1: Shopping malls in the study area Mexico City South. The study was conducted between and during different festival periods broadly categorised as three seasons: April—June spring sales following the occasions of Easter vacation, Mother's day and Father's day , July—August summer sales and November—January winter sales following prolonged Christmas celebrations , when point-of-sale promotions were offered frequently by the selected retail stores located in large shopping malls.

February, September and October are observed to be lean months for shopping among residents. The data collection process was initiated in July and terminated in June , covering nine shopping seasons during the study. A focus group session was organised with potential respondents to identify the most appropriate variables for the data collection. Accordingly, 45 variables that were closely related to influencing shopping arousal and customer satisfaction towards point-of-sale promotions were selected and incorporated in the questionnaires.

The questionnaires were pilot tested to The variables selected for the study have been broadly classified into economic and behavioural variables, as shown in Table 1. Table 1 Variables chosen for the study. A mall intercept survey was conducted, and visitors to malls were asked where they lived and whether they came from home.

Research Article

More attractive malls were expected to attract customers from greater distances. A questionnaire was developed to investigate the extent to which point-of-sale promotions had influenced buying behaviour, derived post-buying satisfaction and augmented the volume of sales of the retail stores. The pre-test of the preliminary questionnaire on measuring the influence of point-of-sale promotions on stimulated buying behaviour indicated that promotion offers introduced by the retailers acted as strong stimuli for regular and new shoppers. Based on responses from the pre-test, the final questionnaire necessitated no significant changes.

The questionnaires were translated into Spanish. All care was taken regarding the terminology and language employed in each version of the questionnaire. The variables used in the questionnaire for data collection included various perspectives of customer satisfaction and promotional practices offered by the retailers to gain competitive advantage, optimal market share and higher aggregate sales. The descriptive statistics of the data sets for the variable segments used in the analysis of the study are shown in Table 2.

Table 2 Descriptive statistics for the selected variable groups for the study. Structural equation models SMEs are also known as simultaneous equation models. In order to analyse the effects of different variables identified in the study on the customer value of buying in shopping malls, a structural equations model is derived. The multivariate regression technique has been used to estimate equations of the model.

These structural equations are meant to represent causal relationships among the variables in the model Fox, Shoppers perceive value in buying products in the stores inside the malls, stimulated by smart sales promotions B sp wherein shopping arousal is driven by the ambience of shopping malls A am and assortment of brand retail stores R bs in a commercial place.

European Research on Management and Business Economics

In order to measure the cyclicality of shoppers visiting malls in the three festive seasons as discussed in the pre-text, an initial robust weighting matrix and optimal weighting matrix were employed using the following equation: Open image in new window. Descriptive statistics of the data sets for the variable segments used in the analysis of the study are shown in Table 2.

Data have been inputted to the structural equations of the model discussed in the paper. Customer value V b in shopping at malls is analysed with regard to equation 4 and results are shown in Table 3. Standard error in estimation is represented by SE in Table 3. The results reveal that long-term customer values are associated with shopping in the malls, while customers may derive short-term comparative gains over price and newness of products by shopping at traditional markets surrounding large malls.

How stores track your shopping behavior - Ray Burke - TEDxIndianapolis

The estimations represented for all the observations of the study and standard error have been calculated accordingly. Table 3 Estimations of structural equations. Figures in parentheses indicate number of shops in malls. Results concerning the impact of various relational variables including sales promotion, ambience, assortment of stores, distance travelled to visit the shopping mall and preference for traditional markets on volume of buying and customer value of buying are shown in Table 4.

A Study on the Impact of Hedonic Shopping Value on Impulse Buying among Consumers in Kolkata

Variables measured in this table refer to the construct of equation 5 discussed in the paper. Table 4 Impact of relational variables on customer value in buying at shopping malls vs. The results presented in the Table 4 show that sales promotions offered in large shopping LS malls have a greater impact Extra large shopping XLS malls comprise large departmental stores and brand retail stores that offer premium products attracting a consumer segment of higher economic class.

Thus, sales promotions do not affect the customer value in buying products of exclusive brands. However, shopping arousal in XLS malls has a greater impact A principal reason for higher shopping arousal in XLS malls is the large assortment of stores Small shopping SS malls have a smaller assortment of retail stores Three major attributes of shoppers, including shopping frequency, average buying value and number of stores visited in the shopping malls, were analysed with respect to each shopping season during the study period. The results are graphically illustrated in Figure 2 , which reveals that the ratio of frequency of visits to value of buying increases with the hierarchy of shopping malls, except in the case if SS malls.

Figure 2: Attributes of shopping in malls. The beta coefficient is measured to find out the volatility of customer preferences among familiar and non-familiar brands, shopping malls and retail stores. It is observed that shoppers in festive seasons look for new products that are innovative and technology-based, irrespective of brand.

follow url The festive shopping seasons in Mexico have fixed dates. Of these, Christmas is the major leisure-shopping season, and attracts voluminous buying as compared to the shopping on Mother's and Father's day. The leisure-shopping attractions begin in July and rise to their peak during November—December, augmenting consumer opportunities to make impulsive purchases for both gifts and items for personal use. It may be seen from Table 5 that the volume of buying is higher among non-familiar brands.

Table 5 Beta coefficient measures for variety seeking behaviour and loyalty. Each cell represents separate regression.