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APA American Psychological Association style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6 th ed. When possible, include the year, month, and date in references.
If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication. Please note, too, that the OWL still includes information about print sources and databases for those still working with these sources. Individual webpages and documents hosted online are cited similarly to print content. Note, however, that the URL is typically included at the end of the entry. The URL may, at the author's discretion, be left as an active link. Include additional information like translators, editors, first edition publication date, and so on as you would for print sources.
Author, A. Date of publication. Title of page [Format description when necessary].
Eco, U. How to write a thesis [PDF file]. Farina C. If the page's author is not listed, start with the title instead. If the date of publication is not listed, use the abbreviation n. Spotlight Resources. You only need to include a date of access when the page's content is likely to change over time like, for instance, if you're citing a wiki that is publicly edited. Purdue University Writing Lab [Facebook page].
Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. Include all information the online host makes available, including an issue number in parentheses.
Referencing at Newman: Introduction to referencing
Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number issue number if available. Bernstein, M. DOIs are now rendered as an alpha-numeric string which acts as an active link. So, if it is using the older numeric string, use that as the DOI. If, however, it is presented as the newer alpha-numeric string, use that as the DOI. DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles.
They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. Many—but not all—publishers will provide an article's DOI on the first page of the document. Note that some online bibliographies provide an article's DOI but may "hide" the code under a button which may read "Article" or may be an abbreviation of a vendor's name like "CrossRef" or "PubMed.
Title of Journal, volume number issue number if available , page range. Brownlie, D. Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41 , Wooldridge, M. Playing with technology: Mother-toddler interaction scores lower during play with electronic toys. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33 5 , Remember that one goal of citations is to provide your readers with enough information to find the article; providing the journal home page aids readers in this process.
Title of Journal, volume number issue number if available. Kenneth, I. A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. Please note: APA states that including database information in citations is not necessary because databases change over time p. However, the OWL still includes information about databases for those users who need database information.
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When referencing a print article obtained from an online database such as a database in the library , provide appropriate print citation information formatted just like a "normal" print citation would be for that type of work. By providing this information, you allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article. You can also include the item number or accession number or database URL at the end, but the APA manual says that this is not required.
If you are citing a database article that is available in other places, such as a journal or magazine, include the homepage's URL.
Resources on referencing
You may have to do a web search of the article's title, author, etc. For articles that are easily located, do not provide database information. You will refer to a range of different types of material including books, journal articles, images and web resources in your academic work. When you use the information that you have read in another source, you must create a citation to the source in the text of your document. This citation refers the reader to the full reference in a reference list or bibliography at the end of your document.
A reference list is created at the end of your document which outlines all the sources that you have referenced in your document. A [Online early access]. Published Online: June 12, You do not need to cite common knowledge. Search this Guide Search. This guide provides basic information on how to cite sources and examples for formatting citations in common citation styles.
Select one of the three methods below to cite in-text references: Superscript numbers At the end of the cited information: Fluoridated water as well as various fluoride products such as toothpaste provide fluoride ions necessary for remineralization.
Italic numbers At the end of the cited information: Fluoridated water as well as various fluoride products such as toothpaste provide fluoride ions necessary for remineralization 1. Author name and year of publication At the end of the cited information: Fluoridated water as well as various fluoride products such as toothpaste provide fluoride ions necessary for remineralization Rakita, General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts, 3rd ed. Edited Book Gbalint-Kurti, G. Book in Series Goh, S. Article from a reference book Powder Metallurgy.
Super Organics. Wired, May , pp Article from an online journal Peacock-Lopez, E. Dissertation, Harvard University, Patents Diamond, G. Technical Report or Bulletin Crampton, S.