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Visit emeraldpublishing. Abstract Purpose — The purpose of this paper is to organize the semantics jungle of marketing strategy approaches, terms and concepts into a logically coherent framework using the history of marketing thought to inform current marketing research and practice. Findings — Along with marketing ideas, strategy concepts from managerial economics and from corporate management were absorbed directly into the corpus of strategic marketing thought. If you are writing a systematic review, you can find useful information in this Library Guide.
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In a literature review, however, you will notice the synergy between analysis and synthesis as you zoom-in to closely analyse an individual source, then zoom-out to consider it in relation to the broader field. After analysing a range of sources, you should synthesise the relevant sources, connecting, linking and positioning them against each other, in order to identify the recurring themes, trends and areas of agreement or disagreement within your research field.
After reading and analysing individual sources, you have identified a key concept relating to your research topic as well as a key resource A relating to that concept. The argument in resource A is supported by another article B , which is in turn supported by article D. However, you have also found article C, which contradicts the argument presented in resource A.
One way to synthesise these texts, is to group together the texts supporting your key resource articles B and D , and explain that article C presents contradictory results. Then, you would need to examine the methodological differences or any other possible reasons for the contradictory results. Another way of managing sources and arguments presented in them is to use a literature review matrix also called synthesis matrix. Literature review matrix is a table in which you can represent the views, ideas, or data according to thematic categories that correspond to your research project.
As you fill out your matrix, you will begin to get a clearer view of how different sources are related, and recognise patterns that may not have been immediately visible before.
For example, you may see a correlation between sample sizes and types of conclusions, or between specific kinds of aims and the methods chosen to address them. Because information is arranged in thematic columns, you can get a useful overview of all aims, or all methods at a glance.
You can add new columns as your understanding improves. Thus the review matrix can also be a powerful tool for synthesising the patterns you identify across literature, and for formulating your own observations. Literature reviews exist within different types of scholarly works with varying foci and emphases. Short or miniature literature reviews can be presented in journal articles, book chapters, or coursework assignments to set the background for the research work and provide a general understanding of the research topic.
However, the focus of a literature review in a graduate research thesis is to identify gaps and argue for the need for further research. Depending on the purpose of the writer and the context in which the literature review will be presented, a selective or comprehensive approach may be taken. In the selective approach, a single or limited number of sources are reviewed e.
A comprehensive approach requires the review of numerous books and articles e. Within a thesis, a literature review may appear in a single chapter — often being the first independent chapter after the introduction. As a result, a thesis can contain multiple reviews based upon thematic, conceptual, theoretical and methodological considerations. What is the purpose of conducting a literature review? What function does a literature review serve within a thesis?
This is a cyclical process. It is usually one of the first tasks that graduate research students undertake, and one of the last to be completed. A literature review written in the early stages of research is likely to change because you need to review and revise it from time to time and ensure it is up to date.
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You will probably find yourself engaging with the literature in different ways at different stages of your research. The review you conduct in your first year helps you to refine and justify your research questions. Therefore, the firm must be open to the need to revise its prices, if necessary, to remain competitive, to survive and perform in a fast-changing marketplace. The fourth P in the marketing mix is the place which is also known as distribution.
It is concerned with the availability of products or services to customers. In order to implement a successful marketing strategy, it is important to form the habit of evaluating and reflecting upon the exact location where the customer meets the salesperson in which products and services are converted into cash.
Sometimes a change in distribution channels can lead to a rapid increase in sales, although figures vary widely from product to product, as it can be costly in getting the product to the customer. Place encompasses of various methods of transporting and storing goods, and then making them available for the customer. The success formula is getting the right product to the right place at the right time through effective distribution systems. The choice of distribution method will depend on a variety of circumstances.
Marketers can choose to sell their product in many different places. Some companies prefer direct marketing, in which the salespersons are sending out to personally meet and talk with the potential customers. While some companies sell by telemarketing. In each case, the marketer must make the right decision about the very best location or place for the customer to receive essential buying information on the product or service needed to make a buying decision.
The critical questions are asking what your effective distribution channel is. In what way should you change or improve it?
Where else could you offer your products or services? It is quite known that a good product may not be accepted by a market if it is not properly made available in convenient places.
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All products need effective distribution structures Onkvisit and Shaw, Every company must manage smoothly the distribution, or the flow of products to the end consumer. Marketing channels can be viewed as sets of independent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption to profitable markets. However distribution channels is not only concerned to satisfy market demand by supplying goods and services at the right place, quantity, quality, and price, but they also stimulate market demand through the third P which is promotional activities of the units e.
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Therefore the choice of distribution should be viewed as an orchestrated network that creates value for user or consumer through the generation of form, possession, time, and place utilities Stern and El-Ansary, Distribution channels comprise a host of different institutions and agencies.
Among the most prominent structures of these are retailers, wholesalers, common and contract carriers, public warehouses, and distribution centers. Companies can utilize to deliver a product to consumers by using various types of middlemen. As introduced above, there are two main type of distribution channels: Direct and indirect channels. There are two ways to distribute goods; directly to the final customer or indirectly through a more complex system that employs intermediaries.
Direct channels of marketing involve selling through personal contacts from company to prospective customers by mail, phone, and personal visits. Indirect channels of marketing involve selling through third party intermediaries such as agents or broker representatives, wholesalers or distributors, and retailers or dealer. Wholesalers buy products in bulk from the manufacturer to make them available for retailers and sell products to other channel members in smaller quantities. Retailers are useful intermediary in handling transactions with final consumers.
While, direct channel facilitates corporate control and motivation of system members. A member here can be a company employee that monitor distribution activities and use the authority of the company to influence the behavior of distribution personnel. The opposite of direct channel is indirect channel which are not directly controlled by the company. The company uses intermediaries to contact with the final customers. Review of literature shows that there is growing interest in the process by which marketing strategy is developed.
This study investigates the performance implications of using multiple organizational approaches to the development of marketing strategy while focusing on the 4Ps elements of marketing mix. Specifically, we developed and test a model in which implementation of marketing mix elements mediates the relationship between number of marketing strategy approaches in reference to adaptation and standardization pursued and firm performance.