scope of research dissertation

“Critical thinkers” have the dispositions and abilities that lead them to think .. well as beliefs as the end point of a process of critical thinking (Ennis ; Bailin et al. .. tests of critical reading and evaluation and of critiquing an argument. Observational abilities require an understanding of the difference.

As the polling consistently demonstrates, this division is not about policy. It is about hatred. Even on such controversial issues as late-term abortion, there is a wide and deep consensus, and that holds true across many indeed, most of the broad policy questions.

Because our politics has been made sacramental and focused on the person of the president, the State of the Union has been made into a liturgy. That is the only reason it commands such rapt attention.

Manifest Destiny Essay

And that is the reason that it is a focus of intense hatred: The presidency is just one more bauble to be fought over, one more opportunity to exercise power, an instrument for the domination and humiliation of the other tribe. As it happens, the tribe that has every other kind of power is for the moment denied the power of the presidency. And that tribe has gone mad. Never mind that all that shallow, slavering talk about the emoluments clause is an exact functional substitute for all that — nonsense about birth certificates, much of which was amplified and initiated by none other than the current president himself.

Or so they say. The most radical idea in American politics is that it is possible to have a politics that is not oriented toward the domination and subordination of competing social groups but that instead seeks to enable Americans to seek fulfillment and human flourishing on their own terms in accordance with their own interests, values, and priorities. But that will require abandoning the politics of manifest destiny and the idea that the Harvard—Wall Street— New York Times view of the republic and the good life is the only legitimate one or that it even ought to be considered normative, a national default position from which deviation must be formally justified.

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Perhaps that is difficult to see from Cambridge, Brooklyn, or Austin. President Trump is many things, including a middle finger in human form raised to those places by the residents of another America who are trying, desperately, to tell them something, but who have trouble making themselves heard in the New York Times , in Silicon Valley, in the boardrooms, on campus, and even in their own state capitals, where the ruthlessly enforced homogeneity of intellectual and public life leaves our ruling class in a state of almost pristine ignorance of the facts about those whom they would presume to rule.

Consider it? More articles. Previous articles. Consider the context. Most Popular.

Destiny Essay

By Mairead McArdle. Read More. By Jim Geraghty. Making the click-through worthwhile: An already full news environment is greeted by two more shocks, one tragic, one hopeful.

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Jared Yates Sexton, a professor at Georgia Southern University, has declared that 'people have already died' because of President Trump. By Kevin D. With apologies to Margaret Atwood and a thousand other dystopian novelists, we do not have to theorize about what an American police state would look like, because we know what it looks like: the airport, that familiar totalitarian environment where Americans are disarmed, stripped of their privacy, divested of The October Democratic presidential-primary debate finally brought a genuine surprise, in that a pair of second-tier candidates who were in danger of being forgotten woke up, smelled the coffee, and brought their A-games: Amy Klobuchar and Pete Buttigieg.

Considering how other second-tier candidates have turned White House. By David French. At the end of last month, just as the news of the Ukraine scandal started dominating the news cycle, I argued that we're seeing evidence that the guardrails that staff had placed around Donald Trump's worst instincts were in the process of breaking down. When Trump's staff was at its best, it was possible to draw By John McCormack.

Hook for manifest destiny essay

Harris faded after she backtracked on forced busing, a deeply unpopular policy no one really wants to reinstate in , and then she tried By Victor Davis Hanson. A little over 40 years ago, Chinese Communist strongman and reformer Deng Xiaoping began 15 years of sweeping economic reforms. They were designed to end the disastrous, even murderous planned economy of Mao Zedong, who died in In four decades, By Jack Crowe. The settlers resisted weakened Spanish rule and advocated for American sovereignty.

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In Congress passed the Mobile Act, which extended U. The United States annexed Mobile during the War of Spain claimed the lands that constitute present-day Florida in addition to the land stretching from its panhandle westward, across the southern portions of modern-day Alabama and Mississippi to the eastern banks of the Mississippi River. The treaty also set a new boundary running from the mouth of the Sabine River on the Gulf Coast on the eastern border of modern-day Texas northwestward along portions of the Sabine, Red, and Arkansas Rivers, then westward on the 42nd parallel to the Oregon coast.

It was the first boundary to traverse the U. Senator, and President before serving in the U.

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House of Representatives for nine terms — Senate seat when Florida became a state in Westward the course of destiny. Westward ho!

Every mountain has found a tongue for them. In the eyes of many observers there was little difference between federal policy and popular will. However, the concept of expansion veiled multiple motives and was advocated by Northerners and Southerners for different reasons. While many Americans supported it, such growth awakened sectional debates over slavery. The possibility of new Western lands forced the federal government to confront questions that had been somewhat mollified since the Missouri Compromise of Would new states allow slavery or oppose it?

How would Congress maintain its balance of sectional interests? Expansionists, moreover, did not address the potential effects of rapid development on African Americans, American Indians, and Mexican citizens living in contested territories. The Mexican government sought to prohibit the slave trade, and in the Mexican Congress passed a law that suspended U. After achieving independence, Texas existed as an independent republic until its admission as a U.

Revolts erupted in several Mexican states. Under the threat of death, Santa Anna ordered his forces to pull out of Texas and across the Rio Grande River, in effect recognizing Texan independence. Houston served in the Texas congress and as its first president before his election to the U.

Senate in During the next decade, the population in Texas increased from approximately 30, to 50, in to a total of approximately , to , in As members of a distinct minority who were suspected of disloyalty by Anglo settlers, Hispanic Texans were quickly excluded from the political process. The Andrew Jackson administration — and the Martin Van Buren administration — demurred despite their unneutrality, fearing that annexation would provoke all-out war with Mexico—inviting a political backlash driven by critics who believed the push for Texas was linked to the extension of slavery in the Southwest. But the John Tyler administration — was willing to proceed with annexation. Calhoun , completed the negotiations, which were signed on April 12, , and which made Texas eligible for admission as a U. Additionally, the U.

The boundaries with Mexico were left unresolved. But after the fall elections, in which James K.

Polk triumphed, President Tyler pushed the treaty H. It passed the Democratic-controlled House to 98 and the Senate 24 to Tyler signed the treaty into law on March 1, 5 Stat. In the end, Texas was admitted as a state on December 29, , with the proviso that it could be divided into as many as five states—a prospect that outraged and horrified abolitionist members of the Whig Party.

Senate refused to approve the ratification of a treaty annexing Texas to the United States. Polk , maneuvered a joint resolution through both houses of Congress and signed the annexation treaty into law on March 1, James K. Polk set an ambitious course when he assumed the presidency on March 4, The acquisition of California from Mexico was all that remained of his original agenda.

But unlike the acquisition of Oregon, taking possession of such coveted lands required an all-out war. Revealing little, Polk sent diplomats to Mexico, pressuring the Mexican government not to interfere with the annexation of Texas. Moreover, Polk claimed that Mexico owed Americans living in Texas millions of dollars for seized and lost property. After blockading the river and training its cannon on a nearby town, the U. On April 25, , a skirmish between Mexican and U. Mexican officials blamed the United States, while Polk blamed Mexico when he learned of the fighting two weeks later.

Congress, which is vested exclusively by the Constitution with war-making power, he has not designed to consult, much less to ask it for any authority. Supporters and critics of the war stand behind their respective advocates. Trist on February 2, , and approved by the U. Senate on March 10, , ended the war, opened a dramatically different chapter in U. Popular support waned as the conflict continued, contributing to a change in control; the House flipped to a new Whig majority in the elections.

Even counting the human, financial, and political costs of the war, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo represented an American bonanza purchased at a discount. The United States obtained nearly all of modern-day New Mexico and Arizona whose southern portions were later acquired in the Gadsden Purchase ; all of Nevada, Utah, and California, with its coveted deep water ports on the Pacific Ocean; and portions of present-day Colorado and Wyoming. The borders of California, New Mexico, and Texas were later formalized as part of the Compromise of The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo also began to address practical issues that arose from the fact that roughly 90, Mexican citizens, and substantially more American Indians of various tribes, were living in the newly acquired lands, most of them in what became modern-day New Mexico.

The treaty also extended blanket U. But these guarantees were qualified. For instance, Pueblos, although they were Mexican citizens, were not accorded full civil and political rights.