scope of research dissertation

“Critical thinkers” have the dispositions and abilities that lead them to think .. well as beliefs as the end point of a process of critical thinking (Ennis ; Bailin et al. .. tests of critical reading and evaluation and of critiquing an argument. Observational abilities require an understanding of the difference.

On the other hand, the goal of every employee is to find the kind of work that matches their abilities and interests as closely as possible, enables them success, and provides them with opportunities for promotion.

Satisfied employees tend to be more productive and committed to their employers, and a direct correlation has been shown between staff satisfaction and patient satisfaction in health care organizations 4 , 5. Even though research has shown different levels of job satisfaction for nurses, satisfaction predictors tend to be relatively similar, and include working conditions, relationships with coworkers and leaders, pay, promotion, security of employment, responsibility, and working hours 2 , 6 - In Slovenia, no studies on the effects of leadership style, personality characteristics, and managerial competencies of leaders on job satisfaction have been conducted.

There was only some research about leadership style in health care institutions 17 - Also organizational climate and organizational culture in nursing have been studied as well as job satisfaction in some institutions 20 - Experts in Slovenia 17 , 18 , 25 - 27 point to the problem of lack of knowledge of leaders about leadership. The aim of the study was to determine the level of job satisfaction of employees in nursing and to determine the influence of leadership in job satisfaction. Five major Slovenian hospitals have been selected from the hospital list, but 1 refused to participate.

Job Satisfaction of Public and Private Primary School Teachers of Bogra District in Bangladesh

Employees in the 4 participating hospitals represented The questionnaires web-extra material web extra material 1 were distributed in the morning shift, by authors in one hospital and by research coordinators in other 3 hospitals. There were questionnaires distributed, which amounts to Hundred and ten questionnaires were sent to middle- and unit-level nurse leaders and to other nursing employees.

Nurse leaders were not selected randomly; the questionnaires were sent only to those who occupied the position of head of department, unit, or clinic, which means that purposive sampling was used. The maximum time for filling out the questionnaires was 14 days. Questionnaires were collected in specially designed boxes to ensure anonymity. The 4 hospitals had provided a written permission for research. The other four hospitals employed Seven hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed in the morning shift.

Hundred and ten questionnaires were sent to middle and unit-level nurse leaders and were sent to other employees in nursing. Before the research, we obtained a written permission from the participating hospitals.


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This manuscript is part of a larger research, which has in part already been published Two survey questionnaires with closed-type items each were used, one for leaders and one for other employees in nursing. The questionnaires were prepared based on the literature on modern leadership and managerial competencies of nursing leaders and in cooperation with the O. Consulting company for education and research of employees in all areas , and had been tested in a pilot study 10 leaders and 30 employees. Leaders self-assessed their leadership style, managerial competencies, and characteristics on a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree.

Employees assessed the leadership style, managerial competencies, and characteristics of their immediate superior on a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree. The first part of the questionnaire included demographic data: sex, age, institution, years of employment, years of employment in a leading position, and the level of education.

In the study we used two questionnaires, one for leaders and one for other employees in nursing. The questionnaires were prepared in the cooperation with the O. Consulting Company for education and research of employees and also based on the literature on leadership and job satisfaction. We used 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 to 5, with 1 meaning strongly disagree and 5 meaning strongly agree Leaders evaluated themselves, while other employees evaluated their immediate superior. Both, leaders and employees evaluated their own level of job satisfaction. The first part of the questionnaire included demographic data: sex, age, institution, years of employment, years of employment in the leading position, and the level of education.

The second part of questionnaire was prepared after an overview of relevant literature on modern leadership and managerial competencies of nursing leaders 15 , 30 - This part of the questionnaire contains items on managerial competencies and leadership style. In the third part of questionnaire, nursing leaders and nurses indicated their job satisfaction levels, which reflected the relevant theoretical background in the field 2 , 12 , 34 , The survey was based on quantitative methodology.

Ten Low-Cost Benefits to Build Employee Satisfaction

For statistical analysis we used statistical program SPSS Differences between individual variables were analyzed using the t test, while Person correlation was used to identify the relationship between the studied variables. We used factor analysis principal component analysis to establish characteristic of the studied variables. Job satisfaction levels among nursing professionals were determined with 20 questions and factor analysis principal component analysis was conducted to reduce the number of variables.

For evaluation and examination of the screen chart, we continued to estimate with four factors. The value of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test statistics was 0. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the impact of studied independent variables on job satisfaction, and then the proportion of total variation for job satisfaction was explained with the selected independent variables. The study included 96 nursing leaders and other employees in nursing.

There were 11 men and women. Median age of leaders was Leaders spend an average There were significant differences between leaders and employees in ten out of twenty questions on the level of job satisfaction Table 1. Correlation analysis was conducted between job satisfaction of nursing leaders and nurses and their age, years of employment in nursing, type of job, level of education, personal characteristics of leaders integrity, organization, team work, resoluteness, reliability, objectivity, responsibility, confidence, sociability, and ambition , leadership style, and managerial competencies of leaders vision and goals, communication, conflict solving, motivation, interpersonal relations, team work, problem solving, social authority, delegation, decision making, controlling and introducing change, emotional intelligence, human resource development and quality.

Assessment of job satisfaction was determined with twenty questions. We tried to reduce the number of variables with principal component analysis. We decided to call the first factor motivation and concern for the welfare. In this factor, 9 items were ranked including both material and non-material motivation, with an emphasis on encouragement, praise, trust, control, punishment, and working conditions. The second factor was called leadership style.

In this factor, 6 items were ranked including leaders, leadership style, decision making, and feedback. In this factor, 3 items were ranked covering education opportunities, status in the organization, and development. The fourth factor was called cooperation and interpersonal relations. In this factor, 2 items were ranked including relationships with coworkers, leaders, and cooperation between nursing team members.

These predictors explained Finally, we also used a regression equation to determine how selected factors influence the job satisfaction of nurses. The following regression model was made, based on regression analysis results:. Our research confirmed that job satisfaction of nurses in Slovenian hospitals was at a medium level.

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Golbasi et al also found a medium satisfaction level in Turkish hospitals Nurses with a higher education have been shown to be more satisfied with their job than those with lower education We found that nurse leaders were more satisfied with their job than other nurses. Similar results were obtained by Sveinsdottir et al 38 , who showed that nurses were most satisfied with their coworkers and head nurses, and least satisfied with their opportunities for promotion and pay level.

For nursing professionals in Slovenian hospitals, pay level represented the second most important factor of job satisfaction. Nevertheless, respondents expressed a relatively low satisfaction level with personal relationships at their hospital and the leadership style of their immediate superior. This means that Slovenian hospitals are not taking full advantage of the intellectual capital and experience of their employees.

Enhancing empowerment in a supportive environment would allow nurses to experience satisfaction with their job. This study has several limitations. The previously tested questionnaire was not used for this research; instead, we prepared most of the items ourselves and tested them before mailing out the questionnaires. The questions were closed-ended and respondents were asked to select one of the provided answers — the disadvantage of this system being a limited number of answers.

The questionnaire, too, had certain limitations, such as a relatively long time required for its completion over 15 minutes. The study employs the questionnaires to conduct an investigation for employees in international tourist hotels so as to collect information.

We’re listening — tell us what you think

This research surveys employees in international tourist hotels by questionnaire. A total of questionnaires were returned 73 percent. Through correlation analysis, this research discovers that employees are more satisfied under consideration-style-leadership than construction-style-leadership. After controlling for differences in salary, employees appear to prefer consideration-style-leadership.

Besides, employees have different perceptions on work, salary, and overall satisfaction depending on their education level and seniority. The findings in this research expand the knowledge of human resource management and provide some practical suggestions to managers. The study provides a mechanism by which hoteliers can obtain feedback from employees about leadership styles.

Such feedback can then serve as the basis for further development of leadership theory across disciplines. This study provides a guide to the preparation of supervisor in the hotel industry as effective leaders for the dynamic environment of the future. The atmosphere and the perceived quality of working life. Bangkok : National Institute of development administration. Christine, P. Building an Effective and Enjoyable Work Environment. Issey, B. The Self-Esteem And perceived organizational support that forecast a happy employee.

Katz, D. The social psychology of organization. New York : Publisher Wiley. Kornkanok, T. Organization and management. The atmosphere and the performance of professional nurses in regional hospitals Sappasit surprises.

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Ubon Ratchathani. Maintaniya, T. The relationship between the atmosphere and the organization needs to quit. Membership of an employee and the employee. The Institute of civil aviation. Murphy, P. Performance Appraisal: An Organizational Perspective.

brobcentdrustelcha.ga Boston : Allyn and Bacon. Naval, O. Management and Organizational Behavior. Bangkok : editorial work Sutri. Pranee, K. Thesis of business administration walai alongkorn rajabhat University patronage.


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