scope of research dissertation

“Critical thinkers” have the dispositions and abilities that lead them to think .. well as beliefs as the end point of a process of critical thinking (Ennis ; Bailin et al. .. tests of critical reading and evaluation and of critiquing an argument. Observational abilities require an understanding of the difference.

Efficient institutions that are not corrupt and obey the rule of law make and enforce good laws that provide security to property and businesses. Efficient and fair governments would work to invest in the long-term interests of the nation rather than plunder resources through corruption. Comparative research has found that the scale is correlated with higher rates of economic development.

Funds from aid and natural resources are often diverted into private hands and then sent to banks overseas as a result of graft. Some, like Thomas Pogge , call for a global organization that can manage some form of Global Resources Dividend , which could evolve in complexity with time.

Short Essay on Poverty in India – 2

Examples of good governance leading to economic development and poverty reduction include Thailand , Taiwan, Malaysia , South Korea, and Vietnam , which tend to have a strong government, called a hard state or development state. Multinational corporations are regulated so that they follow reasonable standards for pay and labor conditions, pay reasonable taxes to help develop the country, and keep some of the profits in the country, reinvesting them to provide further development.

The United Nations Development Program published a report in April which focused on good governance in poor countries as a key to economic development and overcoming the selfish interests of wealthy elites often behind state actions in developing nations. The comparative analysis of one sociologist [85] suggests that broad historical forces have shaped the likelihood of good governance. Ancient civilizations with more developed government organization before colonialism , as well as elite responsibility, have helped create strong states with the means and efficiency to carry out development policies today.

On the other hand, strong states are not always the form of political organization most conducive to economic development. Another important factor that has been found to affect the quality of institutions and governance was the pattern of colonization how it took place and even the identity of colonizing power. International agencies may be able to promote good governance through various policies of intervention in developing nations as indicated in a few African countries, but comparative analysis suggests it may be much more difficult to achieve in most poor nations around the world.

Another approach that has been proposed for alleviating poverty is Fair Trade which advocates the payment of an above market price as well as social and environmental standards in areas related to the production of goods. The efficacy of this approach to poverty reduction is controversial. Community and monetary economist Thomas H.

Greco, Jr. The Toronto Dollar is an example of a local currency oriented towards reducing poverty. Toronto Dollars are sold and redeemed in such a way that raise funds which are then given as grants to local charities, primarily ones oriented towards reducing poverty. Some have argued for radical economic change in the system.

There are several fundamental proposals for restructuring existing economic relations, and many of their supporters argue that their ideas would reduce or even eliminate poverty entirely if they were implemented. Such proposals have been put forward by both left-wing and right-wing groups: socialism, communism, anarchism , libertarianism , binary economics and participatory economics , among others. Inequality can be reduced by progressive tax.


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In law, there has been a move to establish the absence of poverty as a human right. In his book The End of Poverty , [93] [94] prominent economist Jeffrey Sachs laid out a plan to eradicate global poverty by Following his recommendations, international organizations such as the Global Solidarity Network [95] are working to help eradicate poverty worldwide with intervention in the areas of housing, food, education, basic health, agricultural inputs, safe drinking water, transportation and communications.

The Poor People's Economic Human Rights Campaign is an organization in the United States working to secure freedom from poverty for all by organizing the poor themselves. The Campaign believes that a human rights framework, based on the value of inherent dignity and worth of all persons, offers the best means by which to organize for a political solution to poverty.

Makes camps of anti-poverty.

Essay on Poverty in India

Another approach to reduce poverty was with Norplant, a form of birth control, which was approved in the United States on December 10, Norplant prevents pregnancy for up to five years by gradually releasing a low dose of the hormone into the bloodstream. So why not make a major effort to reduce the number of children, of any race, born into such circumstances? Every state made Norplant available to women for free through Medicaid or other forms of public assistance and to teenage girls through school programs that presented Norplant as the most reasonable option.


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  6. Efforts were also made to provide Norplant to women without Medicaid. The increase in extreme weather events, linked to climate change, and resulting disasters is expected to continue. Disasters are a major cause of impoverishment and can reverse progress towards poverty reduction.

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    It is predicted that by , million plus extremely poor people will be living in the 49 most hazard prone countries. A researcher at a leading global think-tank, the Overseas Development Institute , suggests that far more effort should be done to better coordinate and integrate poverty reduction strategies with climate change adaptation. For example, road investments in India were a staggering 3—10 times more effective than almost all other investments and subsidies in rural economy in the decade of the s.

    What a road does at a macro level to increase transport, the bicycle supports at the micro level. The bicycle, in that sense, can be one of the best means to eradicate poverty in poor nations. In addition to broader approaches, the Sachs Report for the UN Millennium Project [] proposes a series of "quick wins", approaches identified by development experts which would cost relatively little but could have a major constructive effect on world poverty.

    The quick wins are:. The first of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals SDGs calls for an end to poverty by and seeks to ensure social protection for the poor and supporting people affected by climate-related extreme events. If during those 10 years growth rates prevailed over the next 15 years, [ clarification needed ] it is possible to decrease the rate of extreme poverty in the world to 4 per cent by , assuming that growth will benefit all income groups of the population on an equal footing.

    However, if the growth rates over a longer period of 20 years, the rate of prevalent global poverty is likely to be about 6 per cent. In other words, the eradication of extreme poverty will require a significant change from its historical growth rates. Poverty reduction requires governments to identify and reach out to extremely poor and help them out of poverty through sustainable measures.


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    One such approach supported by many international donors is of targeted poverty reduction programmes. For instance, one common method of poverty targeting is 'means testing' that uses a certain income or expenditure threshold for an individual or the a household to be considered as poor and eligible for support. An important part of the fight against poverty are efforts to end hunger and achieve food security. In April , the Food Assistance Convention was signed, the world's first legally binding international agreement on food aid.

    Poverty in India: Causes, Effects and Solutions

    The May Copenhagen Consensus recommended that efforts to combat hunger and malnutrition should be the first priority for politicians and private sector philanthropists looking to maximize the effectiveness of aid spending. They put this ahead of other priorities, like the fight against malaria and AIDS. The main global policy to reduce hunger and poverty are the recently approved Sustainable Development Goals. In particular Goal 2: Zero Hunger sets globally agreed targets to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.

    In Caritas International started a Caritas-wide initiative aimed at ending systemic hunger by The One human family, food for all campaign focuses on awareness raising, improving the impact of Caritas programs and advocating the implementation of the right to food. The partnership Compact, led by IFPRI with the involvement of UN organisations, NGOs and private foundations [] develops and disseminates evidence-based advice to politicians and other decision-makers aimed at ending hunger and undernutrition in the coming 10 years, by The EndingHunger campaign is an online communication campaign aimed at raising awareness of the hunger problem.

    It has many worked through viral videos depicting celebrities voicing their anger about the large number of hungry people in the world. Another initiative focused on improving the hunger situation by improving nutrition is the Scaling up Nutrition movement SUN. Started in , this movement of people from governments, civil society, the United Nations, donors, businesses and researchers publishes a yearly progress report on the changes in their 57 partner countries. In spite of the intensive reduction strategies deployed in the previous two decades, poverty levels in several countries of the world has not been reduced.

    Unless suitable reduction procedures are formulated and implemented in the near future, rustic poverty will probably be a real issue for quite some long time. Families are determined to be low-pay if their monthly income does not surpass the evaluated monthly minimum set by every city or region. Sustained economic growth is noted as the main propelling agent for Poverty Reduction in Taiwan.

    Poverty in Taiwan has nearly been eliminated, with under 1 percent of the populace considered as poor or earning the low-level pay. This implies more than 99 percent of the populace appreciates the advantages of Taiwan's economic flourishing and extraordinarily enhanced personal satisfaction.

    During to Taiwanese government developed a program called National Health Insurance program. NHI mainly provides economically disadvantaged people with quality healthcare at an affordable price.

    Essay on Poverty in India: Meaning, Types, Measures

    People beyond 65 years old whose normal family salary is not exactly, or equivalent to, 1. In addition, there are additionally community associations, scholastic organizations, and private establishments arranged by government offices to help needy people. In principle, Taiwan is currently a liberal and elections based society. Hence social versatility ought to be the standard. However, this type of social welfare will significantly lower the Taiwan's revenue. Due to the slow economic development in the past years, this method will no longer close the income inequality or reduce the unemployment rate effectively in the future.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Measures to reduce poverty permanently. Play media. Main article: Aid. Main article: Welfare's effect on poverty. See also: Development aid and Tied aid.